Interview Profile Mark Spencer Axia College BEH 225 This course, BEH225, has spent the past nine weeks introducing us to different human behaviors and specific types of mental disorders. When exploring theories and concepts associated with the psychology of the human mind, you quickly discover that genetics does play as big a role as does upbringing. I specifically enjoyed the section that explored different types of motivation an employee may or may not display. Another area that I found to be enlightening delved into the various psychological disorders that we may encounter during our life.
I am going to apply what we have studied throughout this course to my interview with Dorothy. Certain aspects, methods, and attitudes are going to be explored, such as memory, learning, intelligence, personality, cognition, motivation, and testing of Dorothy and myself. Memory and Learning Do you remember or memorize information easily? Understanding different learning styles is important when evaluating how a person processes information. A learning style is simply a form of learning or an approach a person takes to learn and memorize information (LdPride. et, n. d). Possessing an understanding of how she receives and processes information helps the interviewer to be more organized. As a result when deciding how easily she remembers information, she refers to reading a book and observing a behavior as examples. Because the interviewer is a visual learner, he remembers information easier through observation. When asking Dorothy the same question she responded, “I remember more details when I observe a behavior, as opposed to reading about something, but I do not need to be directly involved”.
The interviewer’s response is “it is much easier for me to remember details when I observe them. I prefer to be directly involved, especially if it is something I have to repeat”. Long-Term Memory What learning strategies do you use so the information learned remains in your long-term memory? “Long-term memory is a system for permanently storing, managing, and retrieving information for later use. Items of information stored as long-term memory may be available for a lifetime” (Medicine. Net, 2004, Para. 1).
When asking her the question about her process for remembering things over a long period, Dorothy responded, “I remember new information by associating it to something I already know, and then I store it in my long-term memory and link it to other similar information until it is ready to be re-called”. The interviewer’s response was very similar to the interviewee. He stated, “I link the information processed to already stored information, kind of like a comparison. The only problem is that if the information is not important or is boring, I tend to disregard it”. Observational Learning and Environment
What is your preferred studying environment, noisy or quiet? According to Bandura, observational learning also known as the social learning theory is one of the most distinctive learning styles. This style involves a negative or positive change in the observer’s behavior in accordance with a model behavior through observation and imitation. Observational learning is a form of learning through observation without performing the task (1986). What most people fail to realize is that environment plays a crucial role on how information is processed, retained and remembered.
While some people prefer to study at home with music or noisy background, others prefer to study in a quiet location such as a library. When asking Dorothy what her preferred method for studying is she replied, “I prefer to study in the library because it improves the quality of my understanding to the material I am studying”. In hind-sight, this interviewer responded, “I really do not have time to go the library but I do like to study in a quiet environment. I normally wait until late at night when the kids are sleeping, that way I can concentrate on my work. ” Personality Tests
According to Morris & Maisto, Personality reveals characteristic behavior and a person’s typical behavior, which is measured through personality tests (2002). The Myers Briggs test has contributed greatly to the understanding of individual personality types. Although this test is the most socially accepted, there are some people who do not believe in such. The interviewer asked Dorothy to take the Myers Briggs test. She scored as an ENTP, with extroversion being her strength of preference. This type is described as being an Inventor, non-conformist and innovative.
In addition she has an enthusiastic interest in everything and always sensitive to possibilities. Upon receiving the results from her test, Dorothy agrees with the qualities assigned to her type of personality. However, when asked if she believed if the results were accurate, Dorothy is rather skeptical about all personality tests and questions if they are an accurate portrayal of a person’s true personality. Dorothy believes that personality traits change over time and the major factors that have contributed to the development of her personality are social, environment, familial background, and upbringing.
This interviewer also took the test, his assigned type is ESFJ: with sensing as the strongest preference. He is characterized as a Seller and being most sociable of all types, nurturer of harmony and an outstanding host. This type does fit the interviewer well as he is very friendly. Like Dorothy, the interviewer believes that environmental, social and familial factors have influenced his personality and behavior. When discussing the accuracy of personality tests, there is no test, which will provide perfect precision. According to Dr.
O’Neil, “an individual’s personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes them unique from other people” (2006, Para 1). O’Neil believes that the potential factors involved in shaping personality include values, beliefs, and expectations that are genetic and environmental (O’Neil, 2006). Influences on Attitudes and Behaviors How do you feel about the opinion that a person’s race, gender, or ethnicity may play a role in forming his or her personality and behavior? Throughout this interview, Dorothy has demonstrated a strong sense of self-pleasure.
She gets involved in many social activities as she enjoys being around people. She strives to do things that make her feel good and give her the feeling of completeness. Therefore, she gets a sense of inner satisfaction and self-pleasures by helping others. Morris and Maisto (2005) define attitude as a firm formation of beliefs, feelings, and behavior toward an object. They believe that there are two observational tendencies that play a role in shaping behavior; high self-monitoring and low self-monitoring.
Dorothy has demonstrated that she poses a high self-monitoring strategy. Although she is loud and extroverted, she is in complete control over her social behavior. She is able to adapt and act accordingly to specific situations. In order to have a full understanding of her self-monitoring; a discussion on jail sentences and the death penalty was introduced. A person very close to her has been given life in prison for a crime he participated in. Thus, the interviewer knows that this is a good topic to discuss in order to get a true sense of Dorothy’s self-monitoring.
Once the topic was introduced, Dorothy felt a bit uneasy and had a negative attitude against the justice system and the death penalty. She began by withdrawing and not expressing her beliefs. However, after a few minutes of discussion and covering different options, Dorothy took a hesitant approach in expressing her attitude. She began by stating that her attitude is mostly influenced by her environment and surroundings. She believes that everyone is born with his or her own unique personality and attitude.
Dorothy then went on to state, “family has a lot to do with influencing their children’s attitudes and personality; however it is up to the child to do what he or she thinks is best. ” Additionally, she considers that race and ethnic differences do not have a strong impact on how people structure their attitudes. When the interviewer responded, he believes that he has low self-monitoring; he tends to question and debate his own as well as other people’s opinions and beliefs. Unlike Dorothy, the interviewer does not have complete control over his behavior in certain situations.
The interviewer believes that race, age, gender and ethnicity do play a role in forming a person’s behaviors and personality. Much like Dorothy’s response, the interviewer also believes that as people change, their perceptions change too. Motivation When solving a problem or a task what type of motivation do you prefer intrinsic or extrinsic? “Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades” (Bainbridge, 2008, Para 1). Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide” (Bainbridge, 2008, Para 1). When the interviewer asked Dorothy about motivation, she responded that extrinsic motivation gives her time to make choices, and have a greater appreciation of the task in order to get optimal results. However, intrinsic motivation satisfies her inner self by acknowledging that she can perform the task.
Although her answer supports both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, she prefers intrinsic motivation. Like Dorothy, the interviewer also prefers intrinsic motivation. In a paper written for the American Psychological Association, Ryan and Deci describe intrinsic motivation as, the natural inclination to look for uniqueness and challenge, to expand abilities, to investigate, and to learn (2000). “Social environments can facilitate or forestall intrinsic motivation by supporting versus thwarting people’s innate psychological needs.
Some work suggests that satisfaction of the need for relatedness, at least in a distal sense, may also be important for intrinsic motivation” (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Conclusion This interview offers an understanding of two different psychology concepts. In comparing and contrasting the results from the interviewer to those of the interviewee, it is clear that in some concepts, both are similar, and in others they slightly differ. While the interviewer prefers to observe behavior and do hands-on in order to remember new information, the interviewee does not prefer a hands-on approach.
According to attitude development the interviewee has high self-monitoring whereas the interviewer is the opposite. Despite the fact that we are similar in the way we consider the accuracy of measuring personality, our preferred learning environment, and type of motivation, we have our unique attitudes and perceptions. This paper should help improve our awareness of the many differences in learning styles, personality and attitudes as well as give us some knowledge of what researchers perceive of them. References Bainbridge, C. (2008). Intrinsic Motivation.
Retrieved November 16, 2008, from About. com: http://giftedkids. about. com/od/glossary/g/intrinsic. htm Bainbridge, C. (2008). Extrinsic Motivation. Retrieved November 16, 2008, from About. com: http://giftedkids. about. com/od/glossary/g/extrinsic. htm Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. LdPride. net. (n. d). Learning Styles Explained. Retrieved November 16, 2008, from LdPride. net: http://www. ldpride. net/learningstyles. MI. htm Medicine. Net. (2004, June 5). Definition of Long-term memory.
Retrieved November 16, 2008, from Medicine. Net: http://www. medterms. com/script/main/art. asp? articlekey=15299 Morris, C. G. , & Maisto, A. A. (2005). Psychology: An Introduction (12th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. O’neil, D. (2006, July 4). Personality Development. Retrieved November 16, 2008, from http://anthro. palomar. edu/social/soc_3. htm Ryan, R. , & Deci, L. (2008). Self-Determination Theory and the Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well-Being. American Psychologist , Vol. 55, No. 1, 68-78. ———————– 1