BRAIN AND BEHAVIOR STUDY GUIDE 4/24/13 10:50 PM 1. Leo Kanner is associated with autism. 2. Confabulation: fabricate imaginary experiences as compensation for loss of memory 3. Coup: contact of the brain with the skull at the point of trauma 4. Concussion: temporary halt in brain function as a result of a blow to the head. 5. left hemisphere is dominant because it has languages: cerebral dominance 6. fluoxetine: SSRI used to treat depression (i. e. Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil) 7. Rett’s disorder: Autism Spectrum Disorder… nly in girls, mental retardation, hand-wringing, 2-3yrs, genetic disorder, sex linked 23 chromosome . blood brain barrier: separation of circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid in the central nervous system; acts as a gatekeeper for the brain blocking harmful substances from entering while allowing necessary nutrients. 9. neurological diseases are hard to cure because of the blood brain barrier which treats medications as the enemy preventing the therapeutic agents from doing their job. 10. Phobia: irrational fears 11. he primary visual center is located in the occipital lobe Brodmann area 17 12. list three basal ganglia structures: Caudate Nucleus 2. Putamen 3. Globus pallidus 13. Prosopagnosia: inability to recognize faces and causes damage in the fusiform gyrus. 14. cerebral asymmetry: each hemisphere specializes in a particular function; the left hemisphere has the function of language while the right holds the functions of music and creativity 15. transient ischemic attack: blood flow to the brain stops for a brief period of time 16.
The basic malfunction causing Down’s syndrome is chromosome 21 has three chromosomes instead of 2 17. the nervous system defect in multiple sclerosis: demyelination of axons; damage to the myelin sheath 18. inside the body codeine turns into: morphine 9 the role ot dopamine in schizophrenia acts as a anti-psycnotic; works as a dopamine antagonist/blocker 20. astrocytes are star shaped glial cells located in the central nervous system. One of it’s functions is the provision of nutrients to the nervous tissue 21 . the basic neurotransmitter dysfunction is Parkinsonism is : lack of dopamine 22. xytocin and vasopressin originated from hypothalamic cells; they are two hormones of the posterior pituitary 23. three stages of Tourette syndrome: 1. Multiple tics or bleaks 2. Little cries or shouts 3. Shouting of words a) Echolalia , b) Corprolalia 24. Haloperidol 25. Two Subcortical dementias: ??? 1. Huntington’s Chorea ??? 2. Parkinson’s Disease 26. the central nervous system consists of the: brain and spinal cord 27. name of fluid in the ventricles of the brain: cerebrospinal fluid 28. Tract: a bundle of axons found in the central nervous system 29.
Alexia: inability to see words or to read 30. REM characteristics: occurs in the transition stage of 1 and 2 it’s the only time you dream. ??? Brain wave scan or EEG show low amplitude ??? Theta waves ??? Smaller and irregular waves ??? Blood pressure increases 31 . Capgras syndrome: the delusion that individuals in your immediate surroundings ave been replaced by doppelgangers 32. coma: state of unconsciousness 33. Autism Spectrum Disorders: ??? 1. Autism ??? 2. Asperger’s syndrome ??? 3. Pervasive Developmental Disorders-Not otherwise specified (PDC)-NOS) ??? 4.
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder ??? 5. Rett’s Disorders 34. Vascular defect in Williams syndrome: aortic stenosis 35. Oxygenated blood from the lungs is returned to: the left atrium 36. Narcolepsy: Daytime REM sleep 37. Psychosomatic medicine: an interdisciplinary medical field studying the relationships of social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes. 38. Bell-Magendie law: anterior spinal roots contain only motor fibers while the posterior roots contain only sensory fibers. 39. The nervous system originates from the: ectoderm 40.
Parts of a neuron: ??? Nucleus ??? Dendrites ??? Cell body ??? Axon ??? Myelin sheath ??? Axon terminal 41 . All savants have the extraordinary ability of displaying brilliance in a specific area 42. Semantic memory: facts about objects & things in the world 43. Episodic: events and experiences of your own; personal memories 44. Anterograde: inability to remember events/experiences that happened after the onset of amnesia; cant learn anything new. 5. Retrograde amnesia: inability to remember events/experiences that occurred before the onset of amnesia. 46.
Duplicity theory of vision: The eye has dual receptors, it has rods and cones 47. Alcohol and valium have a similar effect on the GABA 48. Prozac is an SSRI used to treat depression; it selectively blocks the reuptake of serotonin making it more available. 49. Congenital disorder: disease/disorder present before or at birth 50. Meninges of the brain: ??? 1. Dura mater ??? 2. Arachnoid ??? 3. Pia mater 51 . Broca’s Aphasia: Expressive or motor aphasia: cannot talk or talk minimally leaving out lots of words 52. Wernicke’s Aphasia: Receptive/Sensory Aphasia with damage in the superior temporal gyrus.
Patient is able to speak but can’t understand what theyre saying (Fluent) 53. Phineas Gage’s accident: railroad construction worker survives an explosion in which a large iron rod was completely driven through his head damaging his brain’s left frontal lobe. 54. Personality changes in Phineas gage are related to brain damage in the frontal cortex 55. Bi-polar disorder: alternating periods of elation and depression 56. Asperger’s syndrome: high functioning autistic people; characterized by an exceptional ability to perform a particular task. 7.
Dyslexia: A learning disability associated with inability to understand phonemes, trouble reading, and has no affect on general intelligence 58. Lithium used to treat mania 59. Procedural memory: remembering how to do something (i. e. ride a bike) 60. The gage matrix: the ability to keep logical thinking intact without maintaining the seat of emotion 61 . Clerembault syndrome: delusions that the love object, usually a highly placed person, is in love with them and communicates his love through signals or signs. 63. Fregoli syndrome: delusion that their pursuers impersonate or repeatedly change their appearance. . Cotard syndrome: delusions that range from the belief that one has lost blood, organs, or body parts to insisting that one has lost one’s soul or is dead. 65. Types of ADHD: ??? 1. Hyperactive ??? 2. Interactive ??? 3. Combined 66. Scotopic viewing condition: vision in dim light involving the rods of the retina. 67. 5 anxiety disorders: ???1. Panic ??? 2. Phobia ??? 3. Social Phobia ??? 4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ??? 5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 68. Ionotropic synapse: when neurotransmitters bind to the extracellualer cite and allows ions to flow across the membrane inside the postsynaptic cell. ct quickly) 69. Metabotropic synapse: extracellular neurotransmitter recognition site that activates a G-protein that opens/closes ion channels 70. Eugene Bleuler: Person who names Schizophrenia 71 . Emil Kraeplin: Person who named dementia praecox 72. Neurons that fires when an animal/human acts and when the animal/human observes the same action performed by another 73. Hydrocephaly: condition in which fluid accumulates in the brain, typically young children, enlarging the head and sometimes causing brain damage. 74. Amygdala: a group of nuclei in the medial anterior part of the temporal lobe.