1. Introduction: 1a. Psychics who possess clairvoyant powers have the ability to predict more zener cards than do people who lack such powers. 1b. Many experiments about ESP and psychic human beings around the world have been conducted to test the existence of ESP. A lot of these experiments support Dr. Peter Venkman’s hypothesis, but due to the lack in consistency of the results, all evidence to prove such claims tends to be refuted.
For example, in the 1970s, SRI remote viewing experiments were conducted to test whether a psychic person is able to see a remote place through the eyes of another person, but because of various procedural imperfections, a conclusion that such power exists could not be solidified and goes against Dr. Venkman’s hypothesis. In terms of physics, only four fundamental forces of nature have been found, which are gravity, electromagnetic force, and the strong and weak nuclear forces.
These forces are responsible for every interaction of matter that goes on in the world, and because they’re well studied, we know that they’re not responsible for ESP, again negating Dr. Peter’s hypothesis. 2. Method: 2a. (i)- The target populations are people who claim they have psychic abilities and those who don’t. For increased credibility of the results and decreased bias, the participants will be picked randomly from their populations. A large and equal number of participants will be used in each group to ensure that the results aren’t due to chance and proportion. ii)- I will use 60 participants in each group. In order to prevent any misplacement of the participants in wrong groups and to I will hand out surveys to the participants asking if they ever experienced psychic abilities or not and about their beliefs of ESP; participants whose answers claim they have psychic powers will be put in the psychic group. (iii)- I would use random assignment of participants to groups to prevent the pairing of any experimenters or participants to alter the results.
A variable that I would control is age in order to avoid it as an excuse for the participants to be lacking psychic abilities. 2b. The materials that will be used are zener cards, a mechanical card shuffler to ensure that the shuffling is done right, and cameras to monitor participant behavior. 2c. To control for guessing, only a few seconds will be given to each participant to say what figure is on the card, this way we know that the participant is giving us an answer based on psychic abilities he claims to have.
Experimenter knowledge can be controlled by separating the participant and the experimenter with a curtain, therefore hiding the participant’s identity. By blindfolding the participant and securing the room with cameras we can prevent any card tricks from happening. Poor shuffling is also another variable that we must account for, and for that variable, we are using the mechanical card shuffler from which only one experimenter will draw each card to prevent any problems or bias.
To avoid any problems with the transparency of the zener cards, we will add an additional layer of paper to make sure the cards aren’t visible to the participant or experimenter at all before the cards are flipped. The experimenter himself could be another variable prone to affect the results; therefore, the experimenter will remain quiet all the time while the directions shall be given through a sheet of paper before the participant starts the experiment. 2d. The independent variables in the experiment are both groups of participants, which are the psychics or nonpsychics.
The dependent variable is the number of correctly recognized figures on the cards or basically the results of the experiment. The control variables are the experimenter, the shuffling of the cards, and age. 3. Results: A statistical test would be conducted to test for statistical significance. 3a. A lot of data is needed to do a statistical test, like the number of correct predictions of each participant in each group and calculate the percentage of accuracy. The difference between groups and the variation within groups are important aspects of a statistical test.
The “difference between groups” would be calculated by finding the average of correct answers from the psychic group and the average of correct answers from the nonpsychic group, and then they would be subtracted. So, in each group, I will add up all the correct answers and divide by 60, which is the number of participants in each group, then I will subtract both calculations. 3b. The formula of standard deviation will be used to calculate the variation within the two groups.
Xi is each participant’s number of correct answers and x is the average of the correct answers of the group of that participant. n is the sample size of the group, which is 60. is the sign of summation, or the addition of all the calculations of (xi-x) squared. 3c. Results are called statistically significant if they are unlikely to have occurred by chance. In order for the results of this experiment to be statistically significant, the difference between both averages of the groups must be about 2 times or accurately 1. 96 times the standard deviation of the groups. 4.
Conclusions: 4a. If the results showed that the psychic group only had about 19% correct answers and about 35% correct answers for the nonpsychic group, then Dr. Venkman would be wrong in concluding that both psychics and nonpsychics identify zener cards better than would be expected by chance because the nonpsychics didn’t claim they had any powers but rather they had a higher percentage of correct answers. 4b. The only explanation for the higher percentage of correct answers of the nonpsychic group is chance and the fact that the results aren’t statistically significant. c. Based on the results, the claim that there are such things as psychic people with clairvoyance and extrasensory perception is totally falsified. Chance was certainly a big role player in these results. 4d. The accuracy of this experiment’s results could have been fixed really by lowering the percentage of chance in the results. For example, by changing the figures on the zener cards you can increase the affectivity of the experiment because those being experimented will need to really have powers in order to get several new and different figures correct.