All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM HRD summary for Final Exam HRD Definitions: 1. It is a process for developing and unleashing human expertise through organization development and personnel training and development for the purpose of improving performance. (Foundations of Human Resource Development- 2001, by Richard A. Swanson) 2.
A set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demand. (Human Resource Development 2003, Randy L. Desimone) 3. It is a set of programs which must respond to job changes and integrate the long-term plans and strategies of the organization to ensure the efficient and effective use resources. (Human Resource Development 2003, Randy L. Desimone 4. 005 definition for HRD (Looking at international development and not just focused on organization)“ Human Resource Development is any process over activity that, either initially or over the long term, has the potential to develop adults’ work-knowledge, expertise, productivity, and satisfaction, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organization, community, nation, or ultimately the whole of humanity. ” There many definition for HRD. This is due to two factors: 1. the understanding of and the discovery of new concepts and belief have evolved throughout the years. . Needs for HRD has also changed throughout the years based on assessments of previous methodologies. HRD on Context of the Organization and Environment Environmen t Economical Forces . Political Forces . Cultural Forces Organization Mission and Strategy . Organization Structure . Technology . HR Inpu Outpu Processe t t s 2 3 4 1 5 Analyz Propos Creat Implemen HUMAN RESOURCE t e e e DEVELOPMENT Asse s 1 All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM Model of Employee Behavior Factors in the External Environment
Economical Conditions Supervision Leadership• Performance• Expectations• Organization Reword Structure• Culture • Job design• Coworkers Norms• Group Dynamics• Teamwork• Control Over Outcome• Technological Labor Market changes Conditions Lows and Regulations Labor Union Employee Motivation• Attitudes• Knowledge,• Skill, • Ability Behavior Task • Performance Organizationa• l Citizenship Behaviors Outcome Personal (such as)• Pay• Recognitio• n emotions• Organizational• Teamwo• rk Productivi• ty Product • quality Training and HRD Processing Model Assess needs
Desig n Define Objective Implementatio n Evaluatio n Select evaluation criteria Prioritize Needs Develop Lesson Plan Assessment Select Trainer/leader Select methods & techniques Prepare materials hniques Schedule the program/ intervention Deliver the HRD program or interventi on Determine Evaluation Design Conduct Evolution of Program or intervention Interpret results 2 All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM Learning & HRD (Chapter 3): ? Focus is upon change ? Something new (like skill in conduction meeting) ?
Modifying something new( like accuracy in shooting) ? Change must be long-lasting ? Recalling training course. ? The focus of learning can be cognitive, behavioral, or affective ? Results from the individual’s interaction with the learning environment Improved Training Design ? Task Analysis: ? Break each task down into a series of distinct component tasks ? Keep breaking tasks down to the simplest level possible ? Component Task Achievement: ? Each task must be completed fully before the entire task may be performed correctly ?
You have to specify what is to be done, under what conditions, and how it is to be evaluated ? Task Sequencing: ? Each component task should be arranged in the proper sequence ? Some are serial tasks & some can be done in parallel Maximizing Learning (Training) ? Trainee Characteristics ? Trainability: Motivation, Ability and Perception of the work environment ? Personality and attitudes ? Training Design issues ? Conditions of practice: Active practice, Spaced versus massed practice, Whole versus part learning, Over learning, Knowledge of results (feedback) and Task sequencing: ?
Retention of what is learned: Meaningfulness of the material, Degree of original learning and Interference(Knowledge before training & Changes after training ? Transfer of Training: Does training make it to the job? ? Positive transfer –Job performance improves after training ? Zero transfer –No measurable changes ? Negative transfer –Performance becomes worse after training Maximize Transfer: ? Identical elements: The closer the training is to the job, the easier it is to achieve transfer, Direct relationship to the job,Example: Customer service and angry customers, Role playing, business games, etc. Physical fidelity: Same physically and Same procedurally: Example: Flight and submarine simulators 3 All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM All Rights for Abdulmohsen ? WwW. DiorBoy. CoM Psychological fidelity: Trainee experiences same stresses and conditions as he/she is being trained for: Example: Flight Simulator Phase-1 “Needs Assessment” (Chapter 4) Need is a discrepancy between expectations and performance. Not only “performance” needs involved. ? Where training is needed ? What kinds of training are needed ? Who needs to be trained ? Conditions for training Levels of Assessment ?
Organization Analysis: Where is training needed and under what conditions? To conduct assessment at the organization level the following information is needed: ? A broad, “systems” view is needed ? Need to identify: Organizational goals, resources, climate and Environmental constraints Why Strategic Assessment is Needed ? Ties HRD programs to corporate or organizational goals ? Strengthens the link between profit and HRD actions ? Strengthens corporate support for HRD ? Makes HRD more of a revenue generator and not a profit waster ? Task Analysis: What must be done to perform the job effectively?
The collection of data about a specific job or group of jobs. What employee needs to know to perform a job or jobs. A Sample Task Analysis Process is as follows: ? Develop job description ? Identify job tasks:What should be done? What is actually done? ? Describe KSAOs needed ? Identify potential training areas ? Prioritize potential training areas ? Person Analysis: Who should be trained and how? ? Determines training needs for specific individuals ? Person analysis should be based on many sources of data ? Conduct summary Analysis for each person that determine overall success of the individual ?
Conduct diagnostic Analysis: Discover reasons for performance Prioritizing HRD Needs ? There are never enough resources available ? Must prioritize efforts ? Need full organizational involvement in this process ? Involve an HRD Advisory Committee. 4 All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM Phase-2″ Design”: (Chapter 5) Key activities include: ? Setting objectives ? Performance: What is to be done ? Conditions: Conditions under which performance is done ? Criteria : The level of acceptable performance ? Developing lesson plans ? Content to be covered ?
Activity sequencing ? Selection/design of media ? Selection of trainee activities ? Timing and phasing of activities ? Method(s) of instruction ? Evaluation methods to be used ? Selecting the trainer or vendor ? Training competency: How well can he/she train? If they can’t train, why are they employed? ? Subject Matter Expertise: How well is the material understood? ? Selecting methods and techniques In Selecting Training Methods the followings should be considered ? Program objectives ? Time and money available ? Resources availability ? Trainee characteristics and preferences ?
Preparing materials: which include ? Program announcements ? Program outlines ? Training manuals and textbooks ? Training aids, consumables, etc. ? Scheduling training ? Must be done in conjunction with: ? Production schedulers ? Shift supervisors ? Work supervisors/managers ? Trainees Phase-3″ Implementation”: (Chapter 6) Implementation of training depends on the followings: ? Objectives ? Resources ? Trainee characteristics ? Physical environment: Seating, Comfort level, Physical distractions 5 All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM All Rights for Abdulmohsen ? WwW. DiorBoy. CoM
Planning your HRD implementation before you actually do it greatly increases the likelihood of successful implementation Three basic categories of training delivery methods: ? On-the-Job Training: ? Classroom Training ? Self-Paced Training ? On-the-Job Training: Characteristics of OJT: ? Training at one’s regular workstation ? Most common form of training ? Strengths: Realism and Applicability ? Weaknesses: No formal structure and Can perpetuate mistakes ? Facilitates training transfer to the job ? Reduced training costs, since classroom is not needed ? Noise and production needs may reduce training effectiveness ?
Quality and safety may be impacted There are four types of OJT’s: ? Job instruction training (JIT) o Prepare the worker o Present the task o Practice the task o Follow-up ? Job rotation o Train on different tasks/positions o Often used to train entry-level managers o Also used to provide back-up in production positions ? Coaching – between worker and supervisor. It can provide specific performance improvement and correction ? Mentoring – senior employee paired with a junior employee (“protege”) o Helps to learn the ropes o Prepares protege for future advancement
Phase-4″ Evaluation”: (Chapter 7) Definition of evaluation: “The systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection, adoption, value, and modification of various instructional activities. ” In other words, Are we training: ? the right people ? the right “stuff” ? the right way ? with the right materials ? at the right time? Purpose of Evaluation ? Determine whether the program is meeting the intended objectives ? Identify strengths and weaknesses 6 All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM
All Rights for Abdulmohsen ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Determine cost-benefit ratio Identify who benefited most or least Determine future participants Provide information for improving HRD programs Reinforce major points to be made Gather marketing information Determine if training program is appropriate Establish management database WwW. DiorBoy. CoM Possible methods of Data collection for HRD Evaluation: ? Interviews ? Questionnaires ? Direct observation ? Written tests ? Simulation/Performance tests ? Archival performance information Type of data used/needed ? Individual performance ?
Systemwide performance ? Economic HRD Evaluation Steps: ? Analyze needs. ? Determine explicit evaluation strategy. ? Insist on specific and measurable training objectives. ? Obtain participant reactions. ? Develop criterion measures/instruments to measure results. ? Plan and execute evaluation strategy. Why HRD Evaluation are rare: ? Reluctance to having HRD programs evaluated ? Evaluation needs expertise and resources ? Factors other than HRD cause performance improvements – e. g. , ? Economy ? Equipment ? Policies, etc. 7 All Rights for Abdulmohsen WwW. DiorBoy. CoM