Lease vs. Buy Analysis

Case #34:  Lease versus Buy Analysis  Why Buy It When You Can Lease It? David Bajak  Katrina Bishop  Gary Hsieh Question 1: What are the different kinds of leases available and which one would be best suited for Paulo’s restaurant? Explain why? There are two major types of leases: operating lease and financial lease. An operating lease places the responsibility of maintenance and repairs on the lessor, has a life span of no more than 5 years, and is usually  cancellable. A financial lease places the responsibility of maintenance and repairs on the lessee and is usually noncancellable and fully amortized.

Tax? oriented lease, sale? and? leaseback lease, and leverage lease are all examples of financial leases. •  A sale? and? leaseback lease is a form of temporary borrowing, which allows the owner of an asset to sell the asset to another company  and lease it back for a specified period. • Under a tax? oriented lease the lessor will be treated by the IRS as the owner of the leased property for federal tax purposes and  permitted to take tax benefits. • A leveraged lease allows the lessor to borrow a portion of the funds needed to buy the equipment to be leased.

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An operating lease would be best suited for Paulo’s restaurant. Under an operating lease, Paulo would be able to return the equipment and  cancel the contract if needed. The equipment would not have to be listed as a liability or asset on his balance sheet. Also, he would not have to  consider maintenance cost. Question 2: Calculate the net advantage to leasing (NAL) the restaurant equipment. It is assumed that the old equipment has no resale value whereas  the new equipment would have a salvage value of $30,000 after 5 years. The restaurant’s tax rate is estimated to be 40%.

In order to properly compare the lease vs. buy decision we must be able to di stinguish between the situations of owning and not owning the  assets at the end of year five. A lease vs. buy comparison where you are the owner in one situation and not the owner in the other is much like  comparing apples with oranges. The cash flows from leasing and buying for scenarios of owning and not owning the assets are below. In these comparisons cash flows for lease payments were assumed to be in arrears in order to line up with the estimated savings and  maintenance costs for each end of year.

Maintenance fees were included in the buying decision since they are accounted for in the leasing  scenario and we are interested in comparing “apples to apples”. Estimated savings were included in the NPV calculation since it is a cash flow  does affect our NPV of each project. We calculated discount rate of 6% given our interest rate and tax rate and this value was used in our  present value (PV) calculation as our after tax cost of borrowing. This allows us to compare all after tax cash flows (ATCF) to one standard rate  that is related to our borrowing rate. If you intend on not being the owner of the assets the lease vs. uy decision is in favor of buying since the net advantage to leasing (NAL) is  negative number. The NPV of leasing and buying were found to be negative indicating the projects will cost money rather than make money for  the company. The NPV of leasing is ($53,075. 79) however, for buying the costs are not as high showing an NPV of ($45,771. 27). These values  lead us to an NAL of ($7,304. 27) which indicates buying is better than leasing. 2. Net Advantage to Leasing (NOT OWNING ASSET) NPV (LEASE & DON’T OWN) Lease ? Don’t Purchase (G) (D) (E) (F) Taxable Income Maintenance  BTCF  Depreciation (E?

F) Cost (A+B+C+D) $                   ? $                   ? $                ? $                         ? $                   ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $           (21,000. 00) $                   ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $           (21,000. 00) $                   ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $           (21,000. 00) $                   ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $           (21,000. 00) $                   ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $           (21,000. 00) END  OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (A) Buying  $                   ? $                   ?                    ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? (B) Annual Lease  Payment $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) (C) Estimated  Savings $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 (H) Income Tax  (G*40%) $                ? $      8,400. 00 $      8,400. 00 $      8,400. 00 $      8,400. 00 $      8,400. 00 (I) ATCF (E+H) $                   ? $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) (J) Adjusted ATCF $                   ?      (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) PV $                   ? $     (11,886. 79) $     (11,213. 95) $     (10,579. 20) $       (9,980. 38) $       (9,415. 45) NPV NPV (BUY & DON’T OWN) Buy ? With Selling at Salvage Value (E) (G) (F) BTCF  Taxable Income Depreciation (A+B+C+D) (E? F) $  (100,000. 00) $        2,000. 00 $    33,333. 33 $           (31,333. 33) $        2,000. 00 $    44,444. 44 $           (42,444. 44) $        2,000. 00 $    14,814. 81 $           (12,814. 81) $        2,000. 00 $      7,407. 41 $               (5,407. 41) $      32,000. 0 $                ? $              32,000. 00 $     (53,075. 79) END  OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (A) Buying  $    (100,000. 00) $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $        30,000. 00 (B) (C) Annual Lease  Estimated  Payment Savings $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 (D) Maintenance  Cost $       (2,000. 00) $       (2,000. 00) $       (2,000. 00) $       (2,000. 00) $       (2,000. 00) (H) Income Tax  (G*40%) $    12,533. 33 $    16,977. 8 $      5,125. 93 $      2,162. 96 $  (12,800. 00) (I) ATCF (E+H) $  (100,000. 00) $      14,533. 33 $      18,977. 78 $        7,125. 93 $        4,162. 96 $      19,200. 00 (J) Adjusted ATCF $  (100,000. 00) $      14,533. 33 $      18,977. 78 $        7,125. 93 $        4,162. 96 $      19,200. 00 PV $  (100,000. 00) $      13,710. 69 $      16,890. 15 $        5,983. 07 $        3,297. 46 $      14,347. 36 NPV $     (45,771. 27) NAL $       (7,304. 51) If you wish to be the owner of the assets the lease vs. buy decision is also  in favor of buying since the net advantage to leasing (NAL) is negative umber. The NPV of leasing and buying were found to be negative indicating the projects will cost money rather than make money for the  company. The NPV of leasing is ($82,966. 11) however, for buying the costs are not as high showing an NPV of ($59,221. 92). These values lead  us to an NAL of ($23,744. 19) which indicates buying is better than leasing. 2. Net Advantage to Leasing (OWNING ASSET) NPV (LEASE ) Lease ? With Purchase (D) (E) (G) (F) Maintenance  BTCF  Taxable Income Depreciation Cost (A+B+C+D) (E? F) $                      ? $                   ? $                ? $                      ?                       ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $          (21,000. 00) $                      ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $          (21,000. 00) $                      ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $          (21,000. 00) $                      ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $          (21,000. 00) $                      ? $     (21,000. 00) $                ? $          (21,000. 00) END  OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 (A) Buying  $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $     (40,000. 00) B) Annual Lease  Payment $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) (C) Estimated  Savings $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 (H) Income Tax  (G*40%) $                ? $      8,400. 00 $      8,400. 00 $      8,400. 00 $      8,400. 00 $      8,400. 00 (I) ATCF (E+H) $                   ? $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) (J) Adjusted ATCF $                   ? $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (12,600. 00) $     (52,600. 00)

PV $                    ? $    (11,886. 79) $    (11,213. 95) $    (10,579. 20) $       (9,980. 38) $    (39,305. 78) NPV NPV (BUY ) Buy ? Don’t Sell END  OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (A) Buying  $    (100,000. 00) $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                    ? (B) (C) Annual Lease  Estimated  Payment Savings $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 $  4,000. 00 (D) Maintenance  Cost $                      ? $          (2,000. 00) $          (2,000. 0) $          (2,000. 00) $          (2,000. 00) $          (2,000. 00) (E) BTCF  (A+B+C+D) $  (100,000. 00) $        2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 (F) Depreciation $   33,333. 33 $   44,444. 44 $   14,814. 81 $      7,407. 41 $                ? (G) Taxable Income (E? F) $                      ? $          (31,333. 33) $          (42,444. 44) $          (12,814. 81) $           (5,407. 41) $              2,000. 00 (H) Income Tax  (G*40%) $                ? $    12,533. 33 $    16,977. 78 $      5,125. 93 $      2,162. 96 $        (800. 00) (I) ATCF (E+H) $  (100,000. 0) $      14,533. 33 $      18,977. 78 $        7,125. 93 $        4,162. 96 $        1,200. 00 (J) Adjusted ATCF $  (100,000. 00) $      14,533. 33 $      18,977. 78 $        7,125. 93 $        4,162. 96 $        1,200. 00 $    (82,966. 11) PV $  (100,000. 00) $      13,710. 69 $      16,890. 15 $        5,983. 07 $        3,297. 46 $            896. 71 NPV $    (59,221. 92) NAL $    (23,744. 19) The following tables separate all the costs and benefits associated with leasing for each scenario. Costs are shown in red, benefits  are shown in green, and the sum of all costs and benefits (blue) indicates the net advantage to leasing.

END OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (A) Buying  $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? 2. Net Advantage to Leasing (NOT OWNING ASSET) NAL  =  NPV (COSTS) + NPV (BENEFITS) Cost of Leasing: Lease Payments (Lease:No Purchase, Buy:Sell at Salvage Value) (B) (C) (D) (F) (G) (E) Annual Lease  Maintenance  BTCF  Taxable Income Income Tax  Depreciation Payment Cost (A+B+C) (D? E) (F*40%) $                ? $                 ? $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $   (25,000. 00) $                ?         (25,000. 00) $     10,000. 00 $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $   (25,000. 00) $                ? $        (25,000. 00) $     10,000. 00 $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $   (25,000. 00) $                ? $        (25,000. 00) $     10,000. 00 $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $   (25,000. 00) $                ? $        (25,000. 00) $     10,000. 00 $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $   (25,000. 00) $                ? $        (25,000. 00) $     10,000. 00 (H) ATCF (D+G) $                 ? $   (15,000. 00) $   (15,000. 00) $   (15,000. 00) $   (15,000. 00) $   (15,000. 00) PV $                 ?    (14,150. 94) $   (13,349. 95) $   (12,594. 29) $   (11,881. 41) $   (11,208. 87) NPV Cost of Leasing: Loss of Tax Shield Cash Flows (Lease:No Purchase, Sell at Salvage Value)  (C) (D) (B) (F) (G) (E) BTCF  Annual Lease  Maintenance  Taxable Income Income Tax  Depreciation Payment Cost (A+B+C) (D? E) (F*40%) $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $  (33,333. 33) $          33,333. 33 $   (13,333. 33) $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $  (44,444. 4) $          44,444. 44 $   (17,777. 78) $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $  (14,814. 81) $          14,814. 81 $      (5,925. 93) $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $    (7,407. 41) $            7,407. 41 $      (2,962. 96) $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $   (63,185. 46) END OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (A) Buying  $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? (H) ATCF (D+G) $                 ? $   (13,333. 3) $   (17,777. 78) $       (5,925. 93) $       (2,962. 96) $                 ? PV $                 ? $   (12,578. 62) $   (15,822. 16) $       (4,975. 52) $       (2,346. 94) $                 ? NPV Cost of Leasing: Loss of Asset’s Residual Value if Sold  (Lease:No Purchase, Sell at Salvage Value)  (G) (H) (B) (C) (D) (F) (E) ATCF Annual Lease  Maintenance  BTCF  Taxable Income Income Tax  Depreciation (D? E) (F*40%) (D+G) Payment Cost (A+B+C) $                 ? $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ?                  ? $                ? $                 ? $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                ? $                 ? $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $                 ?    (30,000. 00) $                 ? $                ? $   (30,000. 00) $                ? $        (30,000. 00) $     12,000. 00 $   (18,000. 00) (A) Buying $   (35,723. 24) END OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 PV $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $   (13,450. 65) NPV Benefit of Leasing: Cash Flow of Initial Investment (Lease:No Purchase, Sell at Salvage Value)  (B) (C) (D) (F) (G) (H) END OF  (A) (E) Annual Lease  Maintenance  BTCF  Taxable Income Income Tax  ATCF YEAR Buying  Depreciation Payment Cost (A+B+C) (D? E) (F*40%) (D+G) 0 $  100,000. 00 $                 ?                 ? $  100,000. 00 $                ? $                      ? $                 ? $  100,000. 00 1 $                 ? $                 ? $      2,000. 00 $      2,000. 00 $                ? $            2,000. 00 $         (800. 00) $       1,200. 00 2 $                 ? $                 ? $      2,000. 00 $      2,000. 00 $                ? $            2,000. 00 $         (800. 00) $       1,200. 00 3 $                 ? $                 ? $      2,000. 00 $      2,000. 00 $                ? $            2,000. 00 $         (800. 00) $       1,200. 00 4 $                 ? $                 ?       2,000. 00 $      2,000. 00 $                ? $            2,000. 00 $         (800. 00) $        1,200. 00 5 $                 ? $                 ? $      2,000. 00 $      2,000. 00 $                ? $            2,000. 00 $         (800. 00) $       1,200. 00 $   (13,450. 65) PV $  100,000. 00 $        1,132. 08 $        1,068. 00 $        1,007. 54 $          950. 51 $          896. 71 NPV NAL Total Cash Flows (Lease:No Purchase, Sell at Salvage Value) (C) (D) (F) (G) (E) Maintenance  BTCF  Taxable Income Income Tax  Depreciation Cost (A+B+C) (D? E) (F*40%) $                ? $  100,000. 00 $                ?                       ? $                 ? $      2,000. 00 $   (23,000. 00) $  (33,333. 33) $          10,333. 33 $      (4,133. 33) $      2,000. 00 $   (23,000. 00) $  (44,444. 44) $          21,444. 44 $      (8,577. 78) $      2,000. 00 $   (23,000. 00) $  (14,814. 81) $           (8,185. 19) $       3,274. 07 $      2,000. 00 $   (23,000. 00) $    (7,407. 41) $        (15,592. 59) $       6,237. 04 $      2,000. 00 $   (53,000. 00) $                ? $        (53,000. 00) $     21,200. 00 $  105,054. 84 (B) (A) END OF  Annual Lease  YEAR Buying  Payment 0 $  100,000. 00 $                 ? 1 $                 ? 25,000. 00) $     2 $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) 3 $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) 4 $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) 5 $   (30,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) (H) ATCF (D+G) $  100,000. 00 $   (27,133. 33) $   (31,577. 78) $   (19,725. 93) $   (16,762. 96) $   (31,800. 00) 8. 703% PV $  100,000. 00 $   (25,597. 49) $   (28,104. 11) $   (16,562. 27) $   (13,277. 84) $   (23,762. 81) IRR NAL NAL is negative, therefore there is a net advantage to buying in this case. $       (7,304. 51) END OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (A) Buying  $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ?                  ? $                 ? (B) Annual Lease  Payment $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) 2. Net Advantage to Leasing (OWNING ASSET) NAL  =  NPV (COSTS) + NPV (BENEFITS) Cost of Leasing: Lease Payments (Lease:Purchase, Buy:Keep Instead of Sell) (D) (F) (G) (C) (E) BTCF  Taxable Income Income Tax  Maintenance Cost Depreciation (A+B+C) (D? E) (F*40%) $                           ? $                   ? $                ? $                        ? $                ? $                           ? $     (25,000. 00) $                ?           (25,000. 00) $    10,000. 00 $          (25,000. 00) $    10,000. 00 $                           ? $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $                           ? $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $          (25,000. 00) $    10,000. 00 $                           ? $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $          (25,000. 00) $    10,000. 00 $                           ? $     (25,000. 00) $                ? $          (25,000. 00) $    10,000. 00 (H) ATCF (D+G) $                 ? $   (15,000. 00) $   (15,000. 00) $   (15,000. 00) $   (15,000. 00) $   (15,000. 00) PV $                  ?      (14,150. 94) $     (13,349. 95) $     (12,594. 29) $     (11,881. 41) $     (11,208. 87) NPV Cost of Leasing: Loss of Tax Shield Cash Flows (Lease:Purchase, Buy:Keep Instead of Sell) (F) (G) (D) (B) (E) (C) Taxable Income Income Tax  BTCF  Annual Lease  Depreciation Maintenance Cost (D? E) (F*40%) (A+B+C) Payment $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $                ? $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $  (33,333. 33) $           33,333. 33 $  (13,333. 33) $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $  (44,444. 4) $           44,444. 44 $  (17,777. 78) $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $  (14,814. 81) $           14,814. 81 $    (5,925. 93) $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $    (7,407. 41) $              7,407. 41 $    (2,962. 96) $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $                ? $                        ? $                ? $     (63,185. 46) END OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (A) Buying  $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? H) ATCF (D+G) $                 ? $   (13,333. 33) $   (17,777. 78) $       (5,925. 93) $       (2,962. 96) $                 ? PV $                  ? $     (12,578. 62) $     (15,822. 16) $       (4,975. 52) $       (2,346. 94) $                  ? NPV Cost of Leasing: Added Cost to Own Asset (Lease:Purchase, Buy:Keep Instead of Sell) (F) (D) (B) (G) (E) (C) Taxable Income BTCF  Annual Lease  Income Tax  Depreciation Maintenance Cost (D? E) (A+B+C) Payment (F*40%) $                 ? $                 ? $                   ? $                ? $                 ? $                 ? $                           ?                    ? $                ? $                        ? $                ? $                 ? $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $                ? $                        ? $                ? $                 ? $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $                ? $                        ? $                ? $                 ? $                 ? $                           ? $                   ? $                ? $                        ? $                ? $   (40,000. 00) $                 ? $                           ?      (40,000. 00) $                ? $                        ? $                ? (A) Buying $     (35,723. 24) END OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (H) ATCF (D+G) $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $   (40,000. 00) PV $                  ? $                  ? $                  ? $                  ? $                  ? $     (29,890. 33) NPV Benefit of Leasing: Cash Flow of Initial Investment (Lease:Purchase, Buy:Keep Instead of Sell) (B) (D) (F) (G) (C) (E) Annual Lease  BTCF  Taxable Income Income Tax  Maintenance Cost Depreciation Payment (A+B+C) (D?

E) (F*40%) $  100,000. 00 $                 ? $                           ? $    100,000. 00 $                ? $                        ? $                ? $              2,000. 00 $        (800. 00) $                 ? $                 ? $                 2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 $                ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 $                ? $              2,000. 00 $        (800. 00) $                 ? $                 ? $                 2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 $                ? $              2,000. 0 $        (800. 00) $                 ? $                 ? $ 2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 $                ? $              2,000. 00 $        (800. 00) $                 ? $                 ? $                 2,000. 00 $        2,000. 00 $                ? $              2,000. 00 $        (800. 00) (A) Buying $     (29,890. 33) END OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (H) ATCF (D+G) $  100,000. 00 $       1,200. 00 $       1,200. 00 $       1,200. 00 $       1,200. 00 $       1,200. 00 PV $    100,000. 00 $        1,132. 08 $        1,068. 00 $        1,007. 54 $            950. 51 $            896. 71

NPV NAL Total Cash Flows (Lease:Purchase, Buy:Keep Instead of Sell) (D) (F) (C) (E) BTCF  Taxable Income Maintenance Cost Depreciation (A+B+C) (D? E) $                           ? $    100,000. 00 $                ? $                        ? $                 2,000. 00 $     (23,000. 00) $  (33,333. 33) $           10,333. 33 $                 2,000. 00 $     (23,000. 00) $  (44,444. 44) $           21,444. 44 $                 2,000. 00 $     (23,000. 00) $  (14,814. 81) $            (8,185. 19) $                 2,000. 00 $     (23,000. 00) $    (7,407. 41) $          (15,592. 59) $                 2,000. 0 $     (63,000. 00) $                ? $          (23,000. 00) $    105,054. 84 (B) END OF  (A) Annual Lease  YEAR Buying  Payment 0 $  100,000. 00 $                 ? 1 $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) 2 $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) 3 $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) 4 $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) 5 $   (40,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) (G) Income Tax  (F*40%) $                ? $    (4,133. 33) $    (8,577. 78) $      3,274. 07 $      6,237. 04 $      9,200. 00 (H) ATCF (D+G) $  100,000. 00 $   (27,133. 33) $   (31,577. 78) $   (19,725. 93) $   (16,762. 96) $   (53,800. 0) 13. 721% PV $    100,000. 00 $     (25,597. 49) $     (28,104. 11) $     (16,562. 27) $     (13,277. 84) $     (40,202. 49) IRR NAL NAL is negative, therefore there is a net advantage to buying in this case. $     (23,744. 19) Question 3: What do you think typically happens to leased equipment after the term of the lease expires? The lessee may purchase the equipment for the price stated in the lease contract or return the equipment with no further obligation. The  decision on whether or not to keep the equipment would depend on the type of the equipment, its current condition, and its fair market value.

Question 4: After doing all the calculations, Paulo realizes that he underestimated the cost savings that would result from improved efficiency by $1,000  per year. How should this error be handled? Is it relevant? Explain. This doesn’t affect lease versus buy decisions because the savings are incurred either way. However it does affect the NPV of each project. 4. Underestimate of Savings Cost (NOT OWNING ASSET) NPV (LEASE ‘T OWN) Lease ? Don’t Purchase (D) (E) (G) (F) Maintenance  BTCF  Taxable Income Depreciation Cost (A+B+C+D) (E? F) $                   ? $                   ? $                ?                          ? $                   ? $     (20,000. 00) $                ? $           (20,000. 00) $                   ? $ (20,000. 00) $                ? $           (20,000. 00) $                   ? $     (20,000. 00) $                ? $           (20,000. 00) $                   ? $     (20,000. 00) $                ? $           (20,000. 00) $                   ? $     (20,000. 00) $                ? $           (20,000. 00) END  OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 (A) Buying  $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? B) Annual Lease  Payment $                 ? $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) (C) Estimated  Savings $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 (H) Income Tax  (G*40%) $                ? $      8,000. 00 $      8,000. 00 $      8,000. 00 $      8,000. 00 $      8,000. 00 (I) ATCF (E+H) $                   ? $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) (J) Adjusted ATCF $                   ? $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 0) PV $                   ? $     (11,320. 76) $     (10,679. 96) $     (10,075. 43) $       (9,505. 12) $       (8,967. 10) NPV NPV (BUY ‘T OWN) Buy ? With Selling at Salvage Value (E) (G) (F) BTCF  Taxable Income Depreciation (E? F) (A+B+C+D) $  (100,000. 00) $        3,000. 00 $    33,333. 33 $           (30,333. 33) $        3,000. 00 $    44,444. 44 $           (41,444. 44) $        3,000. 00 $    14,814. 81 $           (11,814. 81) $        3,000. 00 $      7,407. 41 $             (4,407. 41) $      33,000. 00 $                ? $            33,000. 00 $     (50,548. 37) END  OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 A) Buying  $    (100,000. 00) $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $        30,000. 00 (B) (C) Annual Lease  Estimated  Savings Payment $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $                 ? $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 (D) Maintenance  Cost $       (2,000. 00) $       (2,000. 00) $       (2,000. 00) $       (2,000. 00) $       (2,000. 00) (H) Income Tax  (G*40%) $    12,133. 33 $    16,577. 78 $      4,725. 93 $      1,762. 96 $  (13,200. 00) (I) ATCF (E+H) $  (100,000. 00) $      15,133. 3 $      19,577. 78 $        7,725. 93 $        4,762. 96 $      19,800. 00 (J) Adjusted ATCF $  (100,000. 00) $      15,133. 33 $      19,577. 78 $        7,725. 93 $        4,762. 96 $      19,800. 00 PV $  (100,000. 00) $      14,276. 73 $      17,424. 15 $        6,486. 84 $        3,772. 71 $      14,795. 71 NPV $     (43,243. 86) NAL $       (7,304. 51) END  OF  YEAR 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 (A) Buying  $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $                   ? $     (40,000. 00) (B) Annual Lease  Payment $                 ? $     (25,000. 0) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) $     (25,000. 00) (C) Estimated  Savings $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 $  5,000. 00 4. Underestimate of Savings Cost (OWNING ASSET) NPV (LEASE & OWN) Lease ? With Purchase (G) (E) (D) (F) Taxable Income BTCF  Maintenance  Depreciation (E? F) (A+B+C+D) Cost $                      ? $                   ? $                ? $                        ? $                      ? $     (20,000. 00) $                ? $        (20,000. 00) $                      ? $     (20,000. 00) $                ? $        (20,000. 00) $                      ?      (20,000. 00) $                ? $        (20,000. 00) $                      ? $     (20,000. 00) $                ? $        (20,000. 00) $                      ? $     (20,000. 00) $                ? $        (20,000. 00) (H) Income Tax  (G*40%) $                ? $      8,000. 00 $      8,000. 00 $      8,000. 00 $      8,000. 00 $      8,000. 00 (I) ATCF (E+H) $                   ? $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) (J) Adjusted ATCF $                   ? $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (12,000. 00) $     (52,000. 00)