Presidential Doctrines

Running head: PRESIDENTIAL DOCTRINES Presidential Doctrines: President Kennedy and the Communist Expansion Abstract The Kennedy Doctrine was essentially an expansion of the foreign policy of the previous administrations of Dwight D. Eisenhower and Harry S. Truman, The Eisenhower doctrine focused providing both military and economic assistance to nations resisting communism and increasing trade from the U. S. o Latin America and the Truman doctrine focused on containment of communism by providing assistance to countries resisting communism in Europe The Kennedy Doctrine was based on these same objectives but was more concerned with the spread of communism and Soviet influence in Latin America that brought Fidel Castro to power during the 1950s. Presidential Doctrines: President Kennedy and the Communist Expansion The Kennedy Doctrine is a foreign policy initiative of John F. Kennedy our 35th president of the United States1961-1963 towards Latin America.

Kennedy’s idea was to contain communism at all costs and the resulting decline of military and economic influence in the Western Hemisphere. The cold war caused President Kennedy to look for ways to establish and expand foreign policy that would help contain the spread of communism and increased hope for nuclear disarmament. . U. S diplomatic efforts during Kennedy’s presidency President Kennedy was determined to defeat communism in 1961 he initiated a plan that was drawn up during the Eisenhower term to invade Cuba, called The Bay of Pigs Invasion this unfortunately failed miserably which caused great embarrassment to the U.

S. and gave the impression to the soviets that the U. S was weak and the President was to young and inexperienced when it came to any crisis. Kennedy also increased forces in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. The Cuban missile crisis in 1962 in which we came the closest to a nuclear conflict , Kennedy imposed a naval blockade on Cuba and demanded the Soviets remove all missiles from Cuba Before his assassination in 1963 he was able to enact the Nuclear Test-Ban treaty with the Soviets and Britain.

One of his best successes in helping to defeat communism is his creation of the Peace Corp. Major Events during the Kennedy Presidency The most notable events during Kennedy’s presidency stemmed from his foreign policy initiatives in regard to Latin America and the spread of communism were: The Bay of Pigs Invasion on April 17, 1961;Kennedy had approved the invasion that was initiated by his predecessor Dwight D. Eisenhower the purpose was to break off diplomatic relations with Cuba as a result from the increasing conflict between the U.

S and the leftist regime of Fidel Castro, the invasion was ultimately ended by Castro’s military, the failure of The United States caused great humiliation to the U. S and the Kennedy Administration. During this the Cuban missile Crisis was actually beginning, towards the end July of 1962 Castro announce that any attack by the U. S. on Cuba would result in a World War and that he had the backing of the Soviets, in October of that same year it was confirmed that there was evidence of soviet missiles in Cuba.

Later that month Kennedy had decided to enact a quarantine of Cuba, U. S military forces go to DEFCON 2 the highest ever in U. S history. Soviet leader Khrushchev proposed a trade with Kennedy in exchange for removing the soviet missiles in Cuba the US would remove missiles from Turkey however the removal of missiles from Turkey would be done secretly between Kennedy and Khrushchev this part was not part of the open agreement and would not become public nor would it appear to the NATO allies .

This meeting was considered the turning point of the crisis even though it has be denied by many this agreement ever took place. After the Cuban Missile crisis both the U. S and the Soviet Union realized how close they had both come to a nuclear war, they both then attempted to reduce the tension between the two nations. Negotiations resumed with Moscow and an agreement to limit the test ban paved the way for the treaty on July 25 1963, the nations agreed to ban nuclear testing in the atmosphere, space and underwater.

The Limited Test Ban was signed in Moscow on August 5 1963 and approved by the U. S. senate on Sept 23 1963 and on October 7 1963 Kennedy ratified the treaty to include: The prohibition of nuclear weapons tests, allowed underground nuclear tests only if the fallout debris is outside the nations boundaries, and that all nations work towards the end of the armaments race, and the contamination of the environment. Conclusion The Cuban Missile Crisis was the first and only nuclear confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union.

The event appeared to frighten both sides and it marked a change in the development of the Cold War. Some of the direct consequences of the crisis include the following: The Hot Line. Was developed which was direct communications line to help prevent dangerous confrontations such as the Cuban Missile Crisis arising again, the United States secretly removed all its nuclear missiles from Turkey and Italy. A Test Ban Treaty was signed in August 1963. This prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere.

In addition to his foreign policy Kennedy during his short term in office also pushed though an economic stimulus package that included and extension of unemployment benefits and increase to social security benefits minimum wage increase all which resulted in an economic recovery by 1964. References An Overview of the Crisis. (2010, August 25). The Cuban Missile crisis 14 days in October. Retrieved July 30, 2011, from library. thinkquest. org/11046/days/timeline. html Cuban Missile Crisis. (n. d. ). Spartacus Educational.

Retrieved July 30, 2011, from http://www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/COLDcubanmissile. htm Hershberg, J. (n. d. ). The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962: Anatomy of a Controversy. The George Washington University. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www. gwu. edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/moment. htm Nuclear Test Ban Treaty – John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. (nod. ). John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www. jfklibrary. org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty. aspx