Research Medhology

INTRODUCTION The main purpose of this report is to find and conduct a research on how service sector organizations such as restaurants can engage the generation employees who are aged 27 and under. The following research proposal for Ms. Vijaylaxmi includes employee engagement for the generation y working in the Delhi and National capital region (NCR). The findings from the research would be used to pilot the strategies for engaging generation y employees in the restaurant sector specifically to the Delhi and NCR region.

The term employee engagement is personified by the passion and energy employees have to give of their best to the organization to serve the customer. It is all about willingness and ability if the employees to give stationed discretionary effort to help their organization succeed. Engagement is characterized by employees being committed to the organization, believing in what it stands for and being prepared to go above and beyond of what is expected of them to deliver outstanding service to the customer. Employee engagement is more a psychological contract than a physical one. It is something the employee has to offer.

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As we will see, employees make choice about how they behave and to the extent they are engaged. Engaged employees feel inspired by their work, they are customer focused in their approach, and they care about the future of the company and are ready to invest their own effort to see that organization succeeds. (Cook, 2008) The generation y people are often described as blunt, savvy, contradictory, independent, self-confident and optimistic. They defy easy labelling and exact parameters and are the children of the baby boomers and the upbeat younger siblings of generation x. (Tulgan and Martin , 2001) The report consists of a Research design.

A research design is the framework through which the components of a research project are brought together: research question, literature review, data analysis and its result (Thietartet. et. al, ) A questionnaire consisting of 10-12 questions would be distributed among 50 restaurants in Delhi and NCR targeting at least 150 employees. After the questionnaires are filled by the respondents these questionnaires would then be analysed by the way of excel spread sheet or graphs and pie charts. LITERATURE REVIEW Generation Y consist of the segment of population born between 1978 and 1994. These are people below 27 years of age.

They are also called echo boomers or millennium generation. They are more ambitious, creative and difficult to manage. (Sheahan, 2005). Lancaster L (2004) tries to understand the factors such as expansion of technology and media, widening chasm between haves and have not’s, unprecedented immigration growth and environmental changes that influence Generation y’s behaviour and their level of engagement. Engaged staff deliver higher productivity, lower absenteeism, greater employee retention, superior service quality and thus more satisfied and loyal customers, and improved bottom-line business results.

There are various drivers for engaging the staff, these are being excited about one’s work; having confidence in the restaurant, hotel or organizations future; having a promising personal future; working in an organization that supports a work-life balance; being safe; getting recognition; having the ability to improve one’s skills; having a good manager; having confidence in the organization’s senior leaders; and having co-workers that give their very best. More than 25 years of research indicates high-performance restaurants are committed to high-quality products and services and excels in creating loyal customers who serve as advocates. Wiley, J. 2010) In high-performance restaurants (and other service sectors), employees have clear performance standards, receive the training they need to keep up with customer demands and are encouraged to participate in decisions affecting their work and to be innovative. They also indicate that co-worker co-operation in goal accomplishment is high. People who are aligned with and committed to an organization’s objectives perform they are much more likely to be engaged (Kelly K. , Ccozier A. 2010)

According to Lancaster and Stillman (2002) service sector organisations such as restaurant, banks, hotels etc consists of 15% of generation Y employees. They are usually uneasy on the job not because of inexperience or difficulty in adjusting but because of their expectations. This age group is searching for a robust and engaging workplace that encourages a collegiality, teamwork and fun. They look for ample of opportunities to learn and grow. (Dychtwald ed al 2006). Generation y employees are known to be as impatient and sometimes unrealistic.

Despite of all these traits, according to an article publishes in Kuala Lumpur New Straits Times Press (2002) service sectors such as banks, retail outlets, hotels, restaurants etc prefer keeping young crowd as they are smart, innocent, fun, creative and sometimes naive. Since now the hospitality companies are serving a wider range of guests and people from all age group than ever before. These multigenerational travellers have a unique set of attitude, values and work style. Generation Y is poised to become the largest consumer group in the history of US market.

This generation Y are known to be the least loyal, most emotional and least satisfied of all other age groups. (Barsky, J. , Nash L. , 2006). Joy Rothschild, senior Human Resource manager of Omni Hotels said, “While baby boomers are more cognizant of what takes to move ahead, devoting extra time, being willing to relocate where as younger generation are more concerned about quality of life including length of the work week. Major issues faced by restaurants are the generational gaps, the collision, conflict and confusion between generations. (Lancaster, L. 2004).

Generation Y meets ‘pay your dues’ generation X and similar scenarios are being faced in many work places where gen yer’s with their great and sometimes unrealistic expectations clashes with the older ones. Generation Y is in a hurry to get their ideas implemented and to get into a more senior position while generation X believes in putting your time before expecting recognition and promotion. Such generational conflicts are inevitable but certainly manageable when members of various generations are willing to listen to each other. Regular feedbacks need to be given to keep the employees engaged.

Generation Y wants to know that their ideas and work is meaningful and have input into big decisions. Generation Y has little tolerance for lines of authority and proper protocol. Generation X needs to show respect for generation Y and encourage them and must communicate more with them. (Erickson J 2009). As Sheahan, 2005, suggests that understanding the mindsets of generation Y offer practical solutions for entire employment cycle; from attracting, motivating, and managing, training and retaining staff. Reading various articles, journals and books I understand that, service sector consist a mix of all aged employees.

These are: Traditionalist born pre 1946 Baby boomers born between 1946-64 Generation X born between 1965-81 Generation Y Born between 1982- 2000 They all have different believes, values and attributes thus get into clashes and conflicts. It is believed that generation Y are impatient, more career oriented, striving for new opportunities and less engaged and committed to their work. However if a proper environment is provided where generation Y feel valued, respected and empowered they can be more motivated towards working.

For example “Trainees in a restaurant were text messaging, talking and seemingly not paying attention to the lessons. At first, (the trainers) thought it was just rude, said Lisa Kalmar, instructional designer at Signature Worldwide. Soon after, they discovered the trainees were a different kind of group — one that required extra mental stimulation, more group interaction and increased technology. ” (Hanna E. 2009) Research Design “Research design is the framework through which the various components of a research project are brought together: research question, literature review, data analysis and its result. (Thietart et. al,) Its generally compels researchers to clarify their ideas and set about the work they are considering. The quality of design is partly a question of the overall logic of the research approach taken, and partly of how coherent its various components are. (Thietart et. al,) Research design is the framework through which the various components of a research project are brought together: research question, literature review, data analysis and its result. ” (Thietart et. al,) It is of two types: Inductive and Deductive.

It is easy and appropriate to go for deductive approach as per the topic given because there is a wealth of literature available from which a researcher can define a theoretical framework and a hypothesis. It is highly structured approach which helps to select the samples of sufficient size in order to generalise conclusion and it can be quicker to complete and of lower risk. (Saunders. et. al, 2003). To start with the hypothesis that the generation ‘y’ employees working in the NCR restaurant are why more likely demanding from their managers and don’t take any responsibility in their work which resulting in low performance level.

To get the findings it’s necessary to research a population through open and closed ended questionnaire (its more appropriate to generate data and analyse and reflect on what the data is suggesting) to a sample of staff working in NCR restaurant to find the evidence of the problem and solution for how to engage these employees in the organisation for the better outcomes. The questionnaire will be well-phrased and contains unambiguous question that can be answered and pilot testing will also be done to check its user friendly format among ourselves or a small group of population (20 people) before distributing to the generation ‘y’ employees.

Research strategy and data collecting method The research strategy used here is survey through questionnaire which (inclusive of both descriptive and explanatory questions) is usually associated with the deductive approach- To design a research strategy to test the hypothesis. (Saunders et. al, 2003) The primary data collected through these questionnaires are standardised, allowing easy comparison. The quality and structured questionnaire developed in this case mostly contains close ended questions to get more reasonable answer.

Through this we will able to get employee opinion and their attitudes towards Delhi/NCR restaurants. These questionnaires will be distributed among 50 restaurants across the NCR targeting over 150 employees to get the response rate of at least 75 employees (50%). The questionnaire contains approx 10-12 question including two open ended question to allow respondents to use their own word to express themselves in a better and suitable way. In the mean time a set of expert team will go to observe the behaviour of employees working in these restaurants over a specific period of time (1 week).

These experts will notice the engagement, participation, involvement, motivation, commitment and empowerment level of the employees and mark them accordingly to come with enhanced and appropriate conclusion. So we are using multi-methods approaches (questionnaire and observation) to get the appropriate findings. “Research Sampling is defined as the set of elements from which data is collected. It is a sample as a subset of elements drawn from a larger unit called a population. ” (Thietart et. al,)

First to identify the sampling frame we will get the list of all registered restaurants of Delhi NCR and then we will select randomly 50 restaurants to conduct our survey keeping in mind that data collected from these 50 restaurants represents the characteristics of the total population. So the approach chosen here is Probability simple random – A method of collecting the sample at random from the sampling frame (Saunders et. al, 2003) because it is accurate and easily accessible and requires only over a few hundred of samples.

It allows selecting the sample without bias. The selection that simple random sampling provides is more evenly dispersed throughout the population for samples of more than a few hundred cases. (Saunders. et, al. 2003). Sampling Strategy The method used here is simple random, so to get the findings we just close our eyes and start pointing the finger on the random number table to select these 50 restaurant from the entire sampling frame keeping in mind the set of numbers obtain are random in nature but not identical.

To avoid choosing the identical number, the number will be removed from the sampling frame once it has been selected or we can also use excel spreadsheet to choose the random numbers to conduct our findings. The questionnaire is mailed to the employees after purchasing the mailing list from direct mail. com (secondary data). The expecting response rate is 50% through online questionnaire and in any case if it doesn’t give the desired response rate then a team of members will go individually to the chosen restaurant to get the questionnaire filled from the employees.

The reason by we are using both primary and secondary data because through primary data (questionnaire)we get the data which exactly suit your purpose and Secondary data because it’s originally collected for another purpose and possibly we are using that data for our research (ex. In this case- Purchasing the mailing list of the employees and the list of Delhi/NCR restaurants from directmail. com). Data analysis After all these tiresome effort the data need to be analysed and interpreted to make it useful. These data can be analysed either by hand or by using mainframe computers and softwares.

In this case we are using excel spreadsheets to interpret data. Ethical issues: One needs to think in a very careful manner about how they will gain access to undertake their research and about possible ethical concerns that could arise in relation to the conduct of the entire research project. (Saunders, 2007) Ethics has been defined as a “code of behaviour in relation to the rights of those people who become the subject of your work or are affected by it. ” (Wells, 1994, pg 284. cited in Research Methods in Human Resource Management, Valerie Anderson, 2004)

As per the design of the research ethical issues can arise at two stages of the report. The first stage can be the designing stage and the second stage can be the implementation stage. We as a group need to take care of few things in order to minimize errors that may arise due to ethics. Doing this becomes all the important because of the simple fact that we will be dealing with employees who may be easily influenced by their employer. A few things that we will take care of are: During the planning phase 1. The questionnaire will be framed in a way that the employee reveals exactly what he thinks about his employer and their way of working. . The questionnaire will not intend to harm any individual’s image nor will it question the integrity and capability of any individuals. During the execution phase: 1. We will personally ensure them that all interview sessions will be kept confidential. 2. It will be our primary duty to keep all the information generated from the survey in a safe manner and, it can be ensured that this information will not create any disharmony among the employees. 3. The employee may not be in the right frame of mind or an upbeat mood. Factors such as this will be kept into account and such an employee will be most probably dealt with later. . On a personal level we as a team will make sure that we carry out the entire research work efficiently without any biases. Evaluation of Resources Reliability- When conducting a study there are several criteria to take into consideration. One concern is whether a study is reliable; are the findings of the study repeatable and consistent? We are aware of the difficulty with external reliability; that it is impossible to ”freeze” a social setting. Our study is therefore influenced by the specific context it has been conducted in.

However we believe similar studies covering the same subject would find alike comments, as those found in our research. Many of the statements expressed by our respondents are general concerns for restaurants and other hospitality companies. We therefore believe our study to be consistent. Validity- The validity of the study also needs to be taken into consideration. This regards the integrity of the conclusions, generated from a piece of research and is in many ways the most important criterion. Intern validity deals with the match between the researchers’ observations and the theoretical ideas developed.

We believe that our background as Service Management students has given us an insight that makes us capable of applying relevant theories from our field to our findings. External validity is concerned with the degree to which findings can be generalised across social settings. A problem regarding qualitative research is that researchers tend to employ case studies and small samples. We consider the Restaurants of our study to be representative for the case study. We therefore consider it possible to make more general conclusions based on our findings and that this approach will give us the necessary tools to answer our questions at issue.

Generalizability – The field of management theories is vast and it would be impossible for us to centre our discussion in a way so that it covers all aspects on pricing strategies. Therefore we have chosen to focus on the theory that is relevant for our study and concentrated on that field. Another factor that influenced our choice of theory is the desire to write about something that is popular. Our theories reflect these considerations. We have done our research within a limited field but still believe that our findings can be applied on a general level.

Others researchers might have chosen different theories. However we believe that a similar approach to the one of our study would lead to equal findings. Time scale of Activities- This is the important component to give researcher a proper clarity through which a researcher can easily understand where the researches are in process. It offers teams the ability to focus work at the front of a task timeline. The major benefit is that it helps team member to understand the overall impact of work delays can foster stronger collaboration while encouraging better task done.

The activities and the time taken to complete these activities are shown in Gantt chart. The Important components of the Gantt charts are- Literature review, Research design, Generating hypothesis, and Developing questionnaire, Selection of sampling frame and size, distribution of questionnaire and conducting survey, data analysis and gaining access. (Refer Gantt chart) Recommendation- As Generation ‘Y’ employees are often described as blunt, savvy, contradictory, independent, self-confident and optimistic and are considered to be the least loyal, most emotional and least satisfied of all other age groups.

So after considering the overall issue I personally suggest all restaurants should consider the given recommendation for the better outcomes to engage generation ‘Y’ employees in Delhi/NCR restaurants • Managers need training and lesson on open communication with subordinates. • Ensure trust in the work environment. • Employee should move from traditional kind of work culture where “do as told” is practiced. Seniors should also encourage employees to be proactive. • Management course should be given to supervisors. • High value of team spirit should be maintained Make work environment conducive to change or experiments. • Top management should improve the policies, motivate staff members to take interest in self development activities and educate on benefits of good climate through several orientation or training sessions. • Management should also ensure effective organizational and HR climate to make employees proactive in self development. • Ensure fair and just promotion practice on performance appraisal. • Introduce motivational package for good performance. QUESTIONNAIRE NAME:-_________________________________

NAME OF ORGANIZATION: __________________________________ DATE OF BIRTH (dd/mm/yy): __/__/__ GENDER: M / F Q1- Since how long have you been part of this organization? (a) Less than 6 months (b) Less than on year (c) More than one year Q2- Rate the level of satisfaction from your job. 1 2 3 4 5 Q3- How would you rate your involvement in your work? 1 2 3 4 5 Q4- Is your pay level satisfactory? Yes / No Q5- Do you valued as a team member? Yes / No Q6- Are you allowed to take independent actions related to your job? Yes / No

Q7- What do u look in an organization before joining it? Please Specify- ___________________________________________________ Q8- Are your demands being looked after by your head of dept. or manager? Yes / No Q9- Will you continue to work for this organization? Yes / No Q10- What immediate and long term goals have you set for yourself? Please Explain- _________________________________________________ Q11- Would you refer this workplace to your friends and family? Yes / No Q12- Is your manger encouraging his subordinates to think about their development and take action in that direction? Yes / No