1. Introduction Today urbanisation has occurred in many places around the globe. The urbanisation is something that people sometimes did not realize the changes. This paper will discuss about the urbanisation that are rapidly happen in our world today and how the roles of landscape architecture professions could also take a major part in the situation. 2. Definition of Urbanisation 1. Definition According to Nsiah-Gyaabah (retrieved on 24 October 2011), urbanisation is the shift from a rural to an urban society, and involves an increase in the number of people in urban areas during a particular year.
The author also stated that urbanisation is the outcome of social, economic and political developments that lead to urban concentration and growth of large cities, changes in land use and transformation from rural to metropolitan pattern of organization and governance. Similarly, wikispace homepage (retrieved on 22 October 2011) also stated that urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people who lives in urban environments. Over time more and more people have moved into the larger communities, thus making them bigger still. However from wiki answer homepage, the answer is quite different.
It described that urbanisation is what will occurs when the rural character of a town is gradually replaced by housing and industrial developments, resulting in more suburbs. Essentially, it is an increase in the proportion of people living in urban or developed areas compared to rural areas. Finally from the finding above, it can be concluded that the term urbanisation is refers to an increasing number of people that living in the towns or cities and this situation may contribute towards the rapid growth of development in particular urban areas. 2.
The process of urbanisation By referring from the Department of Geography webpage (retrieved on 22 October 2011) the process of urbanisation has occurred differently in much of the developing world. The page claimed that urban areas are usually thought to be the centre of business, commerce, industry and population. Exampled liked early in United States history urban areas were far outnumbered by rural areas. Yet, every year more and more cities are considered urban. These cities were located close to transportation routes whether waterways, rails or roads.
So the opportunities presented by industrialization increased the rural to urban migration and cities began to grow. While according to Nsiah-Gyaabah (retrieved on 24 October 2011) the urbanisation processes are largely driven by the market forces and government policies that lead to simultaneous processes of change in livelihoods, land use, health and natural resources management including water, soil and forests and often reactive changes in local governance. The author also stated that the government development policies and budget allocations, which often favour urban residents over rural areas, tend to pull people into the urban areas.
In the cities, public investment, which often misses the urban poor, with expenditures biased towards the higher-income classes and poverty among vulnerable groups such as new migrants force them into slums and squatter settlements. Based on the elaboration above, it can be conclude that the process of urbanisation is basically are generate by many factors, either from government’s policies and planning until the demand that comes from residents. Together they develop the area from time to times.
These are all the opportunities that urban area can give in other to attract more people to migrate to the cities and by doing so, the process of urbanisation will still keep going. 3. The profession of Landscape Architecture 1. Definition of Landscape Architecture Meanwhile by referring to ASLA (retrieved on 23 October 2011), landscape architecture is the profession which applies artistic and scientific principles to the research, planning, design and management of both natural and built environments. The web also stated that the ractitioners of this profession apply creative and technical skills and scientific, cultural and political knowledge in the planned arrangement of natural and constructed elements on the land with a concern for the stewardship and conservation of natural, constructed and human resource. The resulting environments shall serve useful, aesthetic, safe and enjoyable purposes. Besides that, according to Falihin Jasmi (October 2011), landscape architecture means the art and science of analysis, planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of the land.
The scope of this profession includes site planning, garden design, environmental restoration, town or urban planning, park and recreation planning, regional planning and historic preservation. So generally, landscape architecture is the design of outdoor and public spaces to achieve environmental, socio behavioral and aesthetic outcomes. 2. The roles of Landscape Architecture From Didona Associates Landscape Architects (retrived on 23 October 2011), today landscape architecture is employed for both private and public pleasure, from the modest suburb home to a large estate, and from the town square to city parks and greenbelts.
Landscape architecture joins the natural environment with the built environment, and creates and defines outdoor spaces for people. The source also stated that a successful landscape architect’s design turns required site functional elements into site assets that enhance the site and attract people to it. A landscape architect must take the broader view of a site to create a design that complements the sites natural features and enhances its interaction with the people who use the site. They must consider all aspects of the site, its environs and how it and they may evolve. While according to rudi. et homepage (retrieved on 20 October 2011), landscape architects have to involve in the project that had the initial task of determining the underlying concepts for the functions and appearance of the open space and public realm and determining their distribution throughout the city. The web also state that when landscape architect involved in designing both a new city or revitalising an existing city, is very much in the realms of urban design. As learnt from the Putrajaya experience the world’s cities tangibly benefit from landscape architect led masterplans and urban design.
Furthemore NC State University webpage (retrieved on 20 October 2011) stated that landscape architects already involved in large-scale urban Land restoration and rejuvenation, working with communities to convert ‘brown’ and ‘grey’ fields to productive social and economic use. 4. The role of Landscape Architecture in Urbanisation Based on the two terms before we can say that in many ways, landscape architecture is always plays an important role towards an urbanisation. The similarity between these two kinds of thing is very close.
Landscape architecture acting as the professions that designing and creating our surrounding is the fields that serve our environment whether in the rural or urban areas to make it more better and sustainable places. Also in terms of urbanization, we are focusing on how to raising the high standard of living areas that offers many facilities and opportunities. According to planetizen homepage (retrieved on 22 October 2011), landscape architect have shaped the surroundings and they also are the responsible person who design the parks, plazas and many streetscapes that contribute to Vancouver’s label as the world’s most livable city. . Conclusion Generally when we talk about the rapid development or may so-called urbanisation, it is clear that landscape architecture profession can also contribute so many things in helping our surrounding towards better place for living. A study found that a country is considered to be urbanized when over 50% of its population lives in urban places. Rapid urbanization means rapid increase in the number of urban people who need land, house, water, electricity, health care and also education. Landscape architecture profession was already looked at all those elements towards their scope of works.
So landscape architecture needs to involve them self as much as they could in urbanising the cities. 6. References Nsiah-Gyaabah (retrieved on 24 October 2011): Urbanisation Process – Environmental and Health Effects in Africa Wikispace homepage (retrieved on 22 october 2011) ih-igcse-geography. wikispaces. com/6. 1. Urbanisation Wikianswers homepage (retrieved on 22 October 2011) wikianswers. com/Q/What_is_urbanisation Department of Geography (retrieved on 22 October 2011) www. geog. umd. edu/webspinner/bkearney/fall2002/process_of_urbanization. html The American Society of Landscape Architecture, ASLA (retrieved on 23 October 2011) www. ansas. net/~tjhittle/ladef. htm Falihin Jasmi (October 2011) Assignment 01, A Descriptive Essay – Preparing an AP228 Programme Brochure. Didona Associates Landscape Architects (retrived on 23 October 2011) http://www. didonaassociates. com/why/la-overview. html Rudi. net (retrieved on 20 October 2011) www. rudi. net/books/10556 NC State University (retrieved on 20 October 2011) www. naturalearning. org/content/new-role-landscape-architecture Planetizen (retrieved on 22 October 2011) http://www. planetizen. com/node/33947 ———————– 4 LAR 678: Landscape Architecture Communication